It usually starts in a woman’s 40s but can start in her 30s or even earlier. Perimenopause lasts up until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last 1 to 2 years of perimenopause, this drop in estrogen speeds up. At this stage, many women have menopause symptoms.
Perimenopause, or menopause transition, begins several years before menopause. It’s the time when the ovaries gradually begin to make less estrogen. It usually starts in a woman’s 40s but can start in her 30s or even earlier.
Perimenopause lasts up until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last 1 to 2 years of perimenopause, this drop in estrogen speeds up. At this stage, many women have menopause symptoms.
How Long Does Perimenopause Last?
The average length of perimenopause is 4 years, but for some women, this stage may last only a few months or continue for 10 years. Perimenopause ends when a woman has gone 12 months without having her period.
What Are the Signs of Perimenopause?
Women in perimenopause have at least some these symptoms:
- Hot flashes
- Breast tenderness
- Worse premenstrual syndrome
- Lower sex drive
- Irregular periods
- Vaginal dryness; discomfort during sex
- Urine leakage when coughing or sneezing
- Urinary urgency (an urgent need to urinate more frequently)
- Mood swings
- Trouble sleeping
Are My Perimenopausal Symptoms Normal or Something to Be Concerned About?
Irregular periods are common and normal during perimenopause. But other conditions can cause changes in menstrual bleeding. If any of the following situations apply to you, see a doctor to rule out other causes:
- Your periods are very heavy, or they have blood clots.
- Your periods last several days longer than usual.
- You spot between periods.
- You have to spot after sex.
- Your periods happen closer together.
Causes of abnormal bleeding include hormone problems, birth control pills, pregnancy, fibroids, blood clotting problems or, rarely, cancer.
How Is Perimenopause Diagnosed?
Often your doctor can make the diagnosis of perimenopause based on your symptoms. A blood test to check hormone levels may also help, but your hormone levels are changing during perimenopause. It may be more helpful to have several blood tests done at different times for comparison.
Can I Get Pregnant If I Am Perimenopausal?
Yes. Despite a decline in fertility during the perimenopause stage, you can still become pregnant. If you do not want to become pregnant, you should use some form of birth control until you reach menopause (you have gone 12 months without having your period).
For some women, getting pregnant can be difficult once they are in their late 30s to early 40s due to a drop in fertility. If becoming pregnant is the goal, there are treatments that can help you get pregnant.
Are There Treatments That Can Ease the Symptoms of Perimenopause?
Many women get relief from hot flashes after taking low-dose birth control pills for a short time. Other options that may control hot flashes include the birth control skin patch, vaginal ring, and progesterone injections. Certain women should not use birth control hormones, so talk to your doctor to see if they are right for you.
You may also feel better if you do things that enhance your general well-being, such as:
- Stop smoking.
- Get more sleep and try going to sleep and waking up at the same time each day.
- Drink less alcohol.
- Get to a healthy weight and stay there.
- Get enough calcium in your diet.
- Ask your doctor if you should take a multivitamin.
Talk to your doctor if you are having problems with your sex drive. He or she may be able to recommend a counselor or therapist to help you and your partner work through this problem. Vaginal lubricants may also be recommended if vaginal dryness is a problem.
Other treatments available to help with the various symptoms of perimenopause may include antidepressant medications for mood swings.
Alleviate Your Symptoms with Hormone-Replacement
Unfortunately, the transition from fertility to menopause is part of natural aging and it happens to all women. Although the symptoms of perimenopause can be severe, it is possible to reduce their severity and be able to function fully.
For many years, HRT was used to alleviate the symptoms of peri-menopause and reduce the risk of mortality, dementia, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis in aging women. Although a now-revised link to an increased risk of breast cancer led to a temporary decline in the use of HRT, it is again the number one treatment and disease-prevention strategy used in peri-menopausal and menopausal women .
As the name suggests, the aim of HRT is to replace the hormones no longer being produced naturally. The hormones are often delivered in tablet form, although transdermal Testosterone Patches, creams, Testosterone Gels, and implants can also be used. There are four major forms of HRT:
- Estrogen alone
- Estrogen and progesterone
- Gonadomimetics, which contain estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone; an example is a tibolone
- SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators)